Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science <p><span style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: Verdana;">Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science </span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: Verdana;">is a forum for promoting research amongst optometrists and other researchers in optometry and visual science in Europe.</span></p> <p> </p> The Norwegian Association of Optometry (Norges Optikerforbund, NOF) in collaboration with the Italian Association of Optometry (La Società Optometrica Italiana, SOPTI) en-US Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science 1891-0882 Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. Unity in diversity: Working towards a common goal to improve optometry and vision research in Europe Karthikeyan Baskaran Alberto Recchioni Helle Kristine Falkenberg Copyright (c) 2021 Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science 2021-07-14 2021-07-14 14 1 1 1 10.5384/sjovs.v14i1.143 Exogenous Factors Affecting Multifocal Electroretinogram: A mini review <p>Multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) is an important diagnostic tool in the clinical evaluation of central electro-retinal function of the macula. To enhance the diagnostic values and to improve its accuracy and internal consistency, it is crucial to examine carefully the endogenous and exogenous factors that affect mfERG recordings and clinical interpretations. This mini review focuses on three aspects of exogenous factors including (1) physiological variations pertaining to age and gender; (2) systemic changes owing to oxygen, blood pressure and glucose levels; (3) individual variables due to refractive status, pupil size, &nbsp;luminance and viewing condition.</p> Ai-Hong Chen Muhamad Syukri Mohamad Rafiuddin Stuart Coupland Copyright (c) 2021 Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science 2021-07-14 2021-07-14 14 1 1 9 10.5384/sjovs.v14i1.123 Referral in a routine Italian optometric examination: towards an evidence-based model. <p>Italian optometrists refract patients and prescribe optical appliances. The routine optometric examination that is currently conducted in Italy, however, does not include a comprehensive ocular health assessment. Like many other countries, in Italy ophthalmologists are solely responsible for the diagnosis and treatment of ocular pathologies, yet, the care an optometrist provides must be done with the aim of promoting the general and ocular health of patients seen in practice. Such scope has to be pursued using a close collaboration with ophthalmologists, ultimately facilitating the earliest medical diagnosis and minimisation of visual impairment. Referral represents the basis of optometrist-ophthalmologist collaboration, yet, no guidance is available to Italian optometrists indicating when referral is warranted. The purpose of this study was to identify the circumstances deserving a referral in a routine Italian optometric examination in adults, ultimately constituting preliminary evidence-based indications of a referral model oriented to enhance the ocular and general health of patients. A literature review was conducted on Pubmed and the Cochrane Library, mainly targeting high quality secondary literature such as systematic reviews, meta-analysis and clinical guidelines. Several reasons for referral were identified. Further, while a wide range of anomalies of the visual system are likely to be discovered by the Italian optometric examination, up to 20% of patients could suffer an underlying condition undetected by the current assessment. This results in the need to refer seemingly healthy patients if they have not attended routine ophthalmological examinations within optimal time frames. In Italy, and countries with similar settings, the referral is an essential instrument that optometrists must largely use to ensure early diagnosis of ocular conditions by ophthalmologists and minimisation of avoidable visual impairment.</p> Riccardo Cheloni Alexander G Swystun Mauro Frisani Christopher J Davey Copyright (c) 2021 Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science 2021-07-14 2021-07-14 14 1 1 11 10.5384/sjovs.v14i1.129 Behind blue eyes – Evidence for ocular nutritional supplements on the Scandinavian market <p>Nutritional supplements for eye health are very popular, but the size of the market makes it difficult to grasp for the clinician. To guide patients and clinicians in the subject it would therefore be valuable to have a list of available products and their content. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ocular nutritional supplements available on the Scandinavian market and how their doses relate to current evidence. A list of nutritional supplements for ocular health available on the Scandinavian market was compiled by structured internet searches, and the products and their contents were compared with current evidence and legislated upper tolerable levels. Out of 104 products on the Scandinavian market, only two products reached the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2)-formula at the recommended dose. One additional product reached the same formula if the recommended dose was exceeded. As only two nutritional supplements for ocular health on the Scandinavian market reached the AREDS2-dose at recommended dose, clinicians offering such substances need to have knowledge not only about the substances but also of the doses. In the future it would be welcome if the health claims for nutritional supplements were based on placebo-controlled intervention studies, to avoid ineffective products.</p> Tomas Bro Jan Ygge Copyright (c) 2021 Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science 2021-07-14 2021-07-14 14 1 1 7 10.5384/sjovs.v14i1.132 Case finding of dry eye disease in Norwegian optometric practice: a cross-sectional study <p>Optometrists are primary eye care providers, and it is essential that they efficiently identify patients who will benefit from dry eye management. The aim of the study was to explore case finding of dry eye disease (DED) in optometric practice. A cross-sectional study examining dry eye symptoms and signs in 186 patients (18–70 years of age) attending a routine eye examination, with DED defined according to the criteria of the Tear Film and Ocular Surface Society Dry Eye Workshop II. Standard statistical tests were used, and clinical diagnostics were explored using sensitivity, specificity, and receiveroperating curve (ROC) statistics. Fifty-six patients were contact lens wearers, and they were significantly younger than the non-contact lens wearers (mean age 35 (SD = 1) versus 48 (± 2) years). The mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the better eye was 1.0 (± 0.1) (decimal acuity). There was no difference in BCVA between contact lens wearers and non-contact lens wearers. The mean Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score was 22 (± 19), and 138 patients had at least one positive homeostasis marker. Eighty-six had DED, 52 had signs without symptoms, and 23 had symptoms without signs of DED. The sensitivity and specificity of OSDI in detecting any positive homeostasis marker were 62% and 54%, respectively. In all, 106 patients had meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), of which 49 were asymptomatic. In a ROC analysis, an OSDI ≥ 13 showed a diagnostic ability to differentiate between patients with a fluorescein breakup time (FBUT) &lt; 10 seconds and a fluorescein breakup time ≥ 10 seconds, but not between patients with and without staining or MGD. The majority of patients had dry eye signs and/or dry eye symptoms. Routine assessment of FBUT and meibomian glands may enable case finding of DED in optometric practice.</p> Ann Elisabeth Ystenæs Ingeborg Sand Vibeke Sundling Copyright (c) 2021 Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science 2021-07-14 2021-07-14 14 1 1 6 10.5384/sjovs.v14i1.131