Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science <p><span style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: Verdana;">Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science </span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: Verdana;">is a forum for promoting research amongst optometrists and other researchers in optometry and visual science in Europe.</span></p> <p> </p> The Norwegian Association of Optometry (Norges Optikerforbund, NOF) in collaboration with the Italian Association of Optometry (La Società Optometrica Italiana, SOPTI) en-US Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science 1891-0882 Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. Editorial Rigmor C Baraas Fabrizio Zeri António Filipe Teixeira Macedo Copyright (c) 2020 Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 13 2 1 1 10.5384/sjovs.vol13i2p1 Vision status and reading test results in Norwegian adolescents <p>Uncorrected vision anomalies may cause headaches and may affect reading and academic performance. The purpose of this study was to quantify the frequency of vision anomalies, frequency of eye examinations, and use of corrective eye wear in adolescents in Norway, and to explore whether such vision anomalies affect reading test results or frequency of headaches. A cross-sectional study was performed in 436 adolescents (42.0% males) aged 16–19 years living in South-East Norway. Cycloplegic autorefraction, habitual stereoacuity, and habitual monocular amplitudes of accommodation were measured, and all participants reported the frequency of eye examinations, the use of spectacles and/or contact lens wear, and the frequency of headaches. Reading comprehension and decoding skills were evaluated for a subgroup of the participants (189 participants, 34.4% males) by their performance in national reading tests. Vision anomalies were defined as having refractive errors, poor habitual stereoacuity, or poor habitual amplitude of accommodation in at least one eye. Overall, 44.0% were classified as having a refractive error, and a total of 61.9% were measured to have vision anomalies. More frequent headaches were associated with poor habitual amplitude of accommodation when adjusted for sex (<em>p</em> = 0.04). The frequency of poor reading comprehension was higher in the group of adolescents with vision anomalies (<em>n</em> = 109, 31.2%) compared with those with no vision anomalies (<em>n</em> = 80, 18.8%; <em>p</em> = 0.05). Of those with vision anomalies, 33.5% had never had an eye examination, and 63.9% reported not wearing a correction. In Norway, there is no mandatory vision screening after 4 years of age. The results here show that a nation-wide programme of regular eye examinations and proper treatment of vision anomalies for all children and adolescents in Norway should be considered. Identifying and treating children with common eye problems in primary and secondary school will improve educational attainment and increase each child’s chances of succeeding in further education.</p> Lene Hagen Stuart J. Gilson Rigmor C. Baraas Copyright (c) 2020 Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 13 2 2 7 10.5384/sjovs.vol13i2p2-7 Headache, eyestrain, and musculoskeletal symptoms in relation to smartphone and tablet use in healthy adolescents <p>Neck pain and headache are leading causes of years lived with disability globally, and the prevalence is gradually increasing from school age to early adulthood. These symptoms have been linked to the use of digital devices. However, there is little knowledge related to this topic in adolescents, who spend increasingly more time using digital media. The aim of the study was to investigate eyestrain, headache, and musculoskeletal symptoms in relation to the use of tablets and smartphones in healthy adolescents with normal vision. Fifty healthy adolescents aged 11 – 13 years (mean = 12.1 (<em>SD</em> = 0.53)) with normal vision and development participated. A vision examination was performed by an authorised optometrist and an interview questionnaire measuring eyestrain, headache, and musculoskeletal symptoms in relation to screen use was filled out. In addition, screen time, ergonomics, participation in sports, and outdoor time were obtained. Forty-nine (98%) of the 50 children used a smartphone and 17 (34%) used a tablet. Overall, 12% to 41% experienced symptoms of headache, neck pain, tiredness and/or tired eyes while using smartphones and tablets. Nine (18%) experienced at least one symptom often or always while using their device. Musculoskeletal pain and headache were significantly associated with vision and eyestrain. Tablet use was associated with increased symptom scores compared to smartphone use. Increased screen time and shorter viewing distance were associated with eyestrain, headache, and neck pain. Children with neck- shoulder- and back pain were significantly (2.1 hours) less physically active than children without these symptoms. Most adolescents with good health and vision had no symptoms while using smartphones and tablets. However, a significant proportion still experienced symptoms of headache, neck pain, tiredness and tired eyes, and these symptoms were associated. Symptoms increased with screen time, shorter viewing distance and reduced participation in sports. This suggests that even healthy children with good vision may develop vision symptoms and musculoskeletal pain. Awareness should be raised among parents, teachers, eye care- and health care personnel, of the importance of good visual ergonomics and physical activity to promote health in adolescents.</p> Helle K. Falkenberg Tina R Johansen Hanne-Mari Schiøtz Thorud Copyright (c) 2020 Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 13 2 8 14 10.5384/sjovs.vol13i2p8-14 Retinal and optic nerve functions in incontinentia pigmenti: long-term elctrophysiological follow-up <p>Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is a rare, X-linked, dominantly inherited disease affecting mostly females, which is best characterized as an autoimmune disease. It is a multisystem disorder affecting ectodermal tissues. Ocular abnormalities usually occur early in childhood, with subsequent retinal detachment and vision loss. Vision rarely remains intact until adulthood. We present the 17-year visual electrophysiological follow-up of such a rare patient and her mother. The mother was only a carrier, but the daughter developed various manifestations of IP. The aim of our investigations was to obtain information on the progression of functional deterioration in IP. Electroretinography (ERG), multifocal electroretinography (mfERG), visual evoked potentials (VEP), ultrasound (US) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were performed at regular intervals between the patient’s ages of 9 and 26 years (2003 to 2020). From 9 to 22 years of age, a characteristic picture of spared vision with minimal ophthalmoscopic alterations and fluctuating ERG anomalies were observed in the left eye. It was only between the ages of 22 and 23 that subjective symptoms developed, and then complete loss of vision in the affected eye ensued rapidly. The right eye remained clinically asymptomatic throughout the observation period. The mother remained completely asymptomatic, but she showed similar ERG alterations. Electroretinography is a sensitive indicator of the activity of the ocular immune or inflammatory reactions in IP, and it readily detects their functional effect even in the absence of clinical symptoms. Thus, it is recommendable not only for the longterm functional follow-up of these patients, but probably also for early disease-specific screening. ERG recordings from the presented case suggest that the characteristic, asymmetric pattern of retinal functional involvement may be traced back to the different degrees to which the two eyes were exposed to the intermittent reactivations of the disease.</p> Márta janaky Ágnes Jánossy Attila Kovács Daniella Lőrincz Dóra Nagy Dóra Török György Benedek Copyright (c) 2020 Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 13 2 15 20 10.5384/sjovs.vol13i2p15-20