Secondary glaucoma as a result of a sling shot accident, diagnosed half a century later
AbstractSecondary glaucoma following blunt trauma is relatively uncommon in regular optometric practice. Onset of this type of glaucoma may occur within weeks, but may also be delayed several decades. This case report presents a 57 year old male who, 48 years ago, suffered a sling shot accident yet was only recently diagnosed with traumatic glaucoma in his left eye. The trauma caused severely reduced vision in his left eye but, aside from this, the patient did not report any eye- or vision problems and he had never had an eye examination as an adult. He successfully wore ready-made glasses for near work. While all findings were normal in his right eye, his left eye showed reduced vision, inferionasal iridodialysis, angle recession, increased intraocular pressure and heavily excavated optic nerve head. The patient was referred to an ophthalmologist who confirmed unilateral glaucoma. The case report reviews situations where secondary glaucoma from blunt trauma may occur, which ocular signs might be present and which ocular examinations should be undertaken. Further, the importance of following up patients with ocular trauma is discussed.
Alward, W. L. M., & Longmuir, R. A. (2008). Color Atlas of Gonioscopy (2nd ed.). San Fransisco: American Academy of Ophthalmology.
Bayer, A., MumcuoÄŸlu, T., Ã–zge, G., & Uzar, A. I. (2010). An unusual case of glaucoma: traumatic glaucoma probably caused by shock waves. Journal of Trauma, 63(3), E64-66. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e31815ebb00
Blanton, F. M. (1964). Anterior chamber angle recession and secondary glaucoma: A study of the after-effects of traumatic hyphemas. Archives of Ophthalomology, 72, 39-43.
Canavan, Y. M., & Archer, D. B. (1982). Anterior segment consequences of blunt ocular injury. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 66, 549-555.
Chong, C., & Chang, A. A. (2006). Traumatic optic nerveavulsion and central retinal artery occlusion following rugby injury. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 34, 88-89. doi: doi:10.1111/j.1442-9071.2006.1152.x
Choplin, N. T. (2003). Glaucoma associated with ocular trauma. In A. B. Thach (Ed.), Ophthalmic care of the combat casualty (Textbooks of Military Medicine) (pp. 185-194): Dept. of the Army, USA
Cockerham, G. C. (2003). Blunt trauma and nonpenetrating injuries of the anterior segment. In A. B. Thach (Ed.), Ophthalmic care of the combat casualty (Textbooks of Military Medicine) (pp. 137-148): Dept. of the Army, USA
Delori, F., Pomerantzeff, O., & Cox, M. S. (1969). Deformation of the globe under high-speed impact: Its relation to contusion injuries. Investigative Ophthalmology, 8(3), 290-301.
Eliott, D., Hauch, A., Kim, R. W., & Fawzi, A. (2011). Retinal dialysis and detachment in a child after airbag deployment. Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, 15, 203-204. doi: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2010.11.021
Farr, A. K., & Fekrat, S. (1999). Eye injuries assiciated with paintball guns. International Ophthalmology, 22, 169-173.
Girkin, C. A., McGwin, G., Long, C., Morris, R., & Kuhn, F. (2005). Glaucoma Following Penetrating Ocular Trauma: A Cohort Study of the United States Eye Injury Registry. Journal of Glaucoma, 14(6), 470-473.
Goldmann, H., & Schmidt, T. (1957). Applanation tonometry (Engelsk oversettelse). Reprint fra Ãœber applanationstonometrie. Ophthalmologica; 134: 221-242. In R. Ritch & R. M. Caronia (Eds.), (2000). Classic Papers in Glaucoma (pp. 155-162). The Hague, Netherlands: Kugler Publications.
Heijl, A., Bengtsson, B., Patella, M., & Wild, J. (2004). Standard automated perimetry (SAP). In R. N. Weinreb & E. L. Greve (Eds.), Glaucoma Diagnosis. Structure and Function (pp. 83-92). The Hague, Netherlands: Kugler Publications.
Jonas, J. B., & Budde, W. M. (2000). Diagnosis and pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic neuropathy: morphological aspects. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 19(1), 1-40.
Kiel, J., & Chen, S. (2001). Contusion injuries and their ocular effects. Optometry, 84(1), 19-25.
Kulkarni, A. R., Aggarwal, S. P., Kulkarni, R. R., Deshpande, M. D., Walimbe, P. B., & Labshetwar, A. S. (2005). Ocular manifestations of head injury: a clinical study. Eye, 19, 1257-1263. doi: 10.1038/sj.eye.6701753
Leader, B. J. (2004). Glaucoma in traumatized eyes. In E. J. Higginbotham & D. A. Lee (Eds.), Clinical guide to glaucoma management (pp. 326-342). USA: Elsevier Inc.
Mooney, D. (1973). Angle recession and secondary glaucoma. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 57, 608-612.
Nicolela, M., Anton, A., Asawaphureekorn, S., Burgoyne, C., & Tomita, G. (2004). Scanning laser tomography (HRT). In R. N. Weinreb & E. L. Greve (Eds.), Glaucoma diagnosis. Structure and Function (pp. 53-60). The Hague, Netherlands: Kugler Publications.
Rodriguez, J. O., Lavina, A. M., & Agarwal, A. (2003). Prevention and treatment of common eye injuries in sports. American Family Physician, 67(7), 1481-1488.
Salmon, J. F., Mermoud, A., Ivey, A., Swanevelder, S. A., & Hoffmann, M. (1994). The detection of post-traumatic angle recession by gonioscopy in a population-based glaucoma survey. Ophthalmology, 101(11), 1844-1850.
Sarkies, N. (2004). Traumatic optic neuropathy. Eye, 18, 1122-1125. doi: 10.1038/sj.eye.6701571
Sihota, R., HKumar, S., Gupta, V., Dada, T., Kashyap, S., Insan, R., & Srinivasan, G. (2008). Early predictors of traumatic glaucoma after closed globe injury: trabecular pigmentation, widened angle recess, and higher baseline intraocular pressure. Archives of Ophthalomology, 126(7), 921-926.
Sihota, R., Sood, N., & Agarwal, H. (1995). Traumatic glaucoma. Acta Ophthalmologica Scaninavica, 73, 252-254.
Snyder, M. E., & Lindsell, L. B. (2011). Nonappositional repair of iridodialysis. Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, 37(4), 625-628. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrs.2011.02.001
Sponsel, W. E., Gray, W., Scribbick, F. W., Stern, A. R., Weiss, C. E., Groth, S. L., & Walker, J. D. (2011). Blunt eye trauma: empirical histopathologic paintball impact thresholds in fresh mounted porcine eyes. Investigative Ophthalmology & Vision Science, 52, 5157-5166. doi: 10.1167/iovs.11-7172
StaniÄ‡, R., & StaniÄ‡, R. (2001). Traumatic glaucoma. Collegium Antropologicum, 25 Suppl, 101-104.
Welsh, N. (1971). The management of traumatic glaucoma. S. A. Medical Journal, 45(44), 1250-1252.
YÃ¼cel, Y. (2004). Histopathology underlying glaucomatous damage - III. In R. N. Weinreb & E. L. Greve (Eds.), Glaucoma Diagnosis. Structure and Function (pp. 33-37). The Hague, Netherlands: Kugler Publications.